Circular reversible design in the reuse of the existing buildings. Experiments on public housing districts in Rome
material resource efficiency, design for deconstruction, up-cycling, reversible building design, reuse
European policies are increasingly driving the redevelopment of existing assets within the construction sector. The aim is to boost material and non-material resource efficiency while promoting circularity as well decarbonising. This contribution sees the refurbishment of existing buildings as providing a strategic opportunity to combine design for disassembly and reuse (at the building, system, component and material level) with a ‘life cycle’ approach. A ‘circular’ and ‘reversible’ analytical and design methodology is theoretically defined and verified. This is done by applying this methodology to concrete cases (public housing – ERP – districts in Rome) of funded research and using a set of indicators to quantify the achieved level of effectiveness. This effort reveals original perspectives on how the application of Circular Reversible Building Design to existing buildings can be transferred to the national context.
Architecture | Research & Experimentation
Serena Baiani, Paola Altamura
Serena Baiani, Architect and PhD, is an Associate Professor in Architectural Technology in the Department of Planning, Design and Architectural Technology (PDTA) at ‘Sapienza’ University in Rome, Italy. She specialises in Industrial Design and conducts research centring on the relationship between technological innovation and existing architectural structures. Within this area, she specifically considers the issue of ecological and energy efficiency in recovery projects within the built environment. Mob. +39 339/30.44.575. E-mail: email@example.com
Paola Altamura, Architect and PhD, is a Research Fellow at the Laboratory of Resources Valorisation in Productive and Territorial Systems at the Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA). She is also an Adjunct Professor in Architectural Technology within the Faculty of Architecture at Sapienza University in Rome, Italy and conducts research and investigation on the ecological effectiveness of interventions on the built environment. She particularly focuses on the issue of ‘material resource efficiency’. Mob. +39 340/51.34.638. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Ajayabi, A., Chen, H.-M., Zhou, K., Hopkinson, P., Wang, Y. and Lam, D. (2019), “REBUILD – Regenerative Buildings and Construction systems for a Circular Economy”, in SBE19 Brussels – BAMB-CIRCPATH – Buildings as Material Banks – A Pathway for a Circular Future – IOP Conference Series | Earth and Environmental Science, vol. 225, pp. 1-8. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/225/1/012015 [Accessed 22 March 2021].
Altamura, P. (2015), Costruire a zero rifiuti – Strategie e strumenti per la prevenzione e l’up-cycling dei materiali di scarto in edilizia, FrancoAngeli, Milano.
Altamura, P. and Baiani, S. (2019), “Superuse and upcycling through design: approaches and tools”, in SBE19 Brussels – BAMB-CIRCPATH – Buildings as Material Banks – A Pathway for a Circular Future – IOP Conference Series | Earth and Environmental Science, vol. 225, pp. 1-8. [Online] Available at: iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/225/1/012014/pdf [Accessed 22 March 2021].
Baiani, S. and Altamura, P. (2019), “La mappatura delle fonti di materiali secondari per le costruzioni – Prime esperienze a Roma | Mapping the sources of secondary building materials – First experiences in Rome”, in Baratta, A. (ed.), Atti del III Convegno Internazionale – Il riciclaggio di scarti e rifiuti in edilizia – Dal downcycling all’upcycling verso gli obiettivi di economia circolare, Timía, Roma, pp. 120-131. [Online] Available at: conferencerecycling.com/downloads/proceedings/2019/10.pdf [Accessed 22 March 2021].
Borne, E. (2018), “Anne Lacaton – Nous cherchons toujours à dilater l’espace”, in L’Architecture d’Aujourd’hui, vol. 424, pp. 46-51. [Online] Available at: lacatonvassal.com/data/documents/20181220-1746541805_AA_424.pdf [Accessed 22 March 2021].
Brand, S. (1994), How Buildings Learn – What Happens After They’re Built, Viking, New York.
Camera dei Deputati and CRESME (2019), Il recupero e la riqualificazione energetica del patrimonio edilizio – Una stima dell’impatto delle misure di incentivazione, Documentazione e Ricerche, n. 32/1. [Online] Available at: documenti.camera.it/leg18/dossier/pdf/am0036a.pdf?_1617566985325 [Accessed 10 March 2021].
Durmisevic, E. (2019), Circular economy in construction design strategies for reversible buildings, BAMB, Netherlands.
Durmisevic, E. (2018), Reversible Building Design Guidelines and Protocol, BAMB, report code WP3ǀ10ǀUT. [Online] Available at: bamb2020.eu/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reversible-Building-Design-guidelines-and-protocol.pdf [Accessed 16 March 2021].
ECESP – European Circular Economy Stakeholder Platform – Coordination Group – Leadership Group on Construction (2020), Orientation paper. [Online] Available at: circulareconomy.europa.eu/platform/sites/default/files/leadership-group-construction.pdf [Accessed 26 March 2021].
European Commission (2020), Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions – A Renovation Wave for Europe – greening our buildings, creating jobs, improving lives, 662 final, Document 52020DC0662. [Online] Available at: eur-lex.europa.eu/resource.html?uri=cellar:0638aa1d-0f02-11eb-bc07-01aa75ed71a1.0003.02/DOC_1&format=PDF [Accessed 10 March 2021].
European Commission (2018), Guidelines for the waste audits before demolition and renovation works of buildings, EU Construction and Demolition Waste Management, May 2018. [Online] Available at: ec.europa.eu/docsroom/documents/31521/attachments/1/translations/en/renditions/native [Accessed 10 March 2021].
European Commission (2014), Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions on Resource Efficiency Opportunities in the Building Sector, 445 final, Document 52014DC0445. [Online] Available at: ec.europa.eu/environment/eussd/pdf/SustainableBuildingsCommunication.pdf [Accessed 10 March 2021].
Giordano, R. (2010), I prodotti per l’edilizia sostenibile – La compatibilità ambientale dei materiali nel processo edilizio, Sistemi Editoriali, Napoli.
Gruppo di Lavoro Economia Circolare di GBC Italia (2020), Linee Guida per la progettazione circolare di edifici. [Online] Available at: gbcitalia.org/documents/20182/565254/GBC+Italia_Linee+Guida+Economia+Circolare.pdf [Accessed 10 March 2021].
Guy, B. and Ciarimboli, N. (2008), Design for Disassembly in the built environment – A guide to closed-loop design and building, Hamer Center for Community Design, University Park, Pennsylvania.
Kernan, P. (2002), “Old to New – Design guide salvaged building materials in new construction”, Greater Vancouver Regional District Policy & Planning Department. [Online] Avalaible at: lifecyclebuilding.org/docs/Old%20to%20New%20Design%20Guide.pdf [Accessed 15 May 2021].
Melton, P. (ed.) (2020), Buildings that last – Design for adaptability, deconstruction, and reuse, AIA – American Institute of Architect, [Online] Avalaible at: content.aia.org/sites/default/files/2020-03/ADR-Guide-final_0.pdf [Accessed 15 May 2021].
Morgan, C. and Stevenson F. (2005), Design for Deconstruction – SEDA Design Guides for Scotland, no. 1. [Online] Available at: static1.squarespace.com/static/5978a800bf629a80c569eef0/t/5aa999f7652deaa430532afd/1530223259684/Design+%26+Detailing+for+Deconstruction.pdf [Accessed 10 March 2021].
Plevoets, B. and Van Cleempoel, K. (2011), “Adaptive Reuse as a Strategy towards Conservation of Cultural Heritage – A Literature Review”, in WIT Transactions on The Built Environment, vol. 118, pp. 155-164. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.2495/STR110131 [Accessed 10 March 2021].
TRL and WRAP (2010), Designing out Waste – A design team guide for civil engineering. [Online] Available at: modular.org/marketing/documents/DesigningoutWaste.pdf [Accessed 9 May 2021].
van Hinte, E., Peeren, C. and Jongert, J. (2007), Superuse – Constructing New Architecture by Shortcutting Material Flows, 010 Publishers, Rotterdam.
Wong, L. (2016), Adaptive Reuse – Extending the Lives of Buildings, Birkhauser, New York.