Patient-centred and technological-centred approaches. Patient room adaptability solutions


doi.org/ 10.19229/978-88-5509-446-7/782022


patient-centred vision, bio-technology-centred vision, intensive care patient room, acuity adaptable rooms, universal bed care delivery


Starting from the study of the spatial/technological organization models of the hospital room (Intensive Care Patient Room, Acuity Adaptable Rooms, Universal Bed Care Delivery) and the main trends regarding the modernization of the architectures of the Italian National Health Service, increasingly attentive to the human dimension and the digital/technological dimension, the paper aims to define design alternatives for the hospital room, trying to combine spatial/technological flexibility with organizational flexibility to optimize workflow in care processes and the appropriateness of spaces to the psycho-physical-social well-being of all the users involved.


Architecture | Essays & Viewpoint

pp. 132-147


Cristiana Cellucci

Author(s) Biography

Cristiana Cellucci, Architect and PhD in Architectural Technology, is a Researcher at Iuav, University of Venice (Italy). She has carried out research and teaching activities in Italy on the human factor as an integral part of the design and on implementing flexibility, inclusivity and well-being requirements through solutions to improve user interactions with places, equipment and technologies. Mob. +39 380/59.46.017 | E-mail: ccellucci@iuav.it


Brown, K. K. (2007), “The universal bed care delivery model – Facility design and operations combine to impact the patient experience”, in Patient Safety & Quality Healthcare, march/april 2007. [Online] Available at: psqh.com/marapr07/caredelivery.html [Accessed 24 July 2022].

de la Fuente-Martos, C., Rojas-Amezcua, M., Gómez-Espejo, M. R., Lara-Aguayo, P., Morán-Fernandez, E. and Aguilar-Alonso, E. (2018), “Humanization in healthcare arises from the need for a holistic approach to illness | Implantación de un proyecto de humanización en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos”, in Medicina Intensiva (English Edition), vol. 42, issue 2, pp. 99-109. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1016/j.medine.2017.08.011 [Accessed 24 July 2022].

Del Nord, R. (2006), Lo stress ambientale nel progetto dell’ospedale pediatrico, Motta Architettura, Milano.

Eilers, R., Haverkate, M., Nijnenhuis, J. and Timen, A. (2021), “The isolation room of the future – Changing the perspective on isolated care”, in European Journal of Public Health, vol. 31, issue Supplement 3. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckab164.708 [Accessed 24 July 2022].

Eijkelenboom, A. and Bluyssen, P. M. (2022), “Comfort and health of patients and staff, related to the physical environment of different departments in hospitals – A literature review”, in Intelligent Buildings International, vol. 14, issue 1, pp. 95-113. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1080/17508975.2019.1613218 [Accessed 24 July 2022].

Eveillard, M., Quenon, J. L., Rufat, P., Mangeol, A. and Fauvelle, F. (2001), “Association between hospital-acquired infections and patients’ transfers”, in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, vol. 22, issue 11, pp. 693-696. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1086/501847 [Accessed 24 July 2022].

Ferenc, J. (2014), “A new vision of care –A smarter patient room – Design team creates a view into the future”, in Health Facility Management, vol. 27, issue 2, pp. 11-13. [Online] Available at: hfmmagazine.com/articles/511-a-new-vision-of-care [Accessed 24 July 2022].

Gallant, D. and Lanning, K. (2001), “Streamlining patient care processes through flexible room and equipment design”, in Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, vol. 24, issue 3, pp. 59-76. [Online] Available at: journals.lww.com/ccnq/Abstract/2001/11000/Streamlining_Patient_Care_Processes_through.6.aspx [Accessed 24 July 2022].

Garg, A. and Dewan, A. (2022), Manual of Hospital Planning and Designing – For Medical Administrators, Architects and Planners, Springer, Switzerland. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-8456-2 [Accessed 24 July 2022].

Hamilton, D. K. and Ulrich, R. S. (2014), “Evidence-based design of the cardiothoracic critical care”, in Klein, A., Vuylsteke, A. and Nashef, S. A. M. (eds), Core topics in cardiothoracic critical care, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 468-474. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139062381.067 [Accessed 24 July 2022].

Hendrich, A. L., Fay, J. and Sorrells, A. K. (2004), “Effects of acuity-adaptable rooms on flow of patients and delivery of care”, in American Journal of Critical Care, vol. 13, issue 1, pp. 35-45. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.4037/ajcc2004.13.1.35 [Accessed 24 July 2022].

Hendrich, A. L. and Lee, N. (2005), “Intra-unit patient transports – Time, motion, and cost impact on hospital efficiency”, in Nursing Economics, vol. 23, issue 4, pp. 157-164. [Online] Available at: pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16189980/ [Accessed 24 July 2022].

Murata, M., Nakagawa, N., Kawasaki, T., Yasuo, S., Yoshida, T., Ando, K., Okamori, S. and Okada, Y. (2022), “Adverse events during intrahospital transport of critically ill patients – A systematic review and meta-analysis”, in The American Journal of Emergency Medicine, vol. 52, pp. 13-19. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2021.11.021 [Accessed 24 July 2022].

Murphy, E. (2000), “The patient room of the future”, in Nursing Management, vol. 31, issue 3, pp. 38-39. [Online] Available at: pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10827719 [Accessed 24 July 2022].

Mokhtar, E. M. O. (2021), “Architectural Framework for The Design of Psychologically Supportive Patient Rooms”, in International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, vol. 8, issue 2, pp. 949-960. [Online] Available at: irjet.net/archives/V8/i2/IRJET-V8I2165.pdf [Accessed 24 July 2022].

Needham, D. M., Sinopoli, D. J., Thompson, D. A., Holzmueller, C. G., Dorman, T., Lubomski, L., Wu, A., Morlock, L., Makary, M. and Pronovost, P. (2005), “A system factors analysis of line, tube and drain incidents in the intensive care unit”, in Critical Care Medicine, vol. 33, issue 8, pp. 1701-1707. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1097/01.CCM.0000171205.73728.81 [Accessed 24 July 2022].

Pati, D., Evans, J., Waggener, L. and Harvey, T. (2008), “An exploratory examination of medical gas booms versus traditional headwalls in intensive care unit design”, in Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, vol. 31, issue 4, pp. 340-356. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1097/01.CNQ.0000336820.12171.cf [Accessed 24 July 2022].

Pati, D., Harvey, T. and Thurston, T. (2012), “Estimating design impact on waste reduction – Examining decentralized nursing”, in The Journal of Nursing Administration, vol. 42, issue 11, pp. 513-518. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1097/NNA.0b013e31827144c9 [Accessed 24 July 2022].

Prandini, L. and Zettele, A. (2013) “Logistica del paziente – Le opportunità dell’outsourcing, sistema di gestione automatizzato dei trasporti intraospedalieri, in L’Ospedale | Trimestrale di igiene tecnologia management degli ospedali e dei servizi sanitari territoriali, issue 3, luglio-settembre, pp. 44-48. [Online] Available at: anmdo.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/Totale-Ospedale-3-13.pdf [Accessed 24 July 2022].

Ulrich, R. and Zhu, X. (2007), “Medical complications of intra-hospital patient transports – Implications for architectural design and research”, in Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 1, issue 1, pp. 31-43. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1177/193758670700100113 [Accessed 24 July 2022].

Whitmee, S. et alii (2015), “Safeguarding human health in the Anthropocene epoch – Report of The Rockefeller Foundation-Lancet Commission on planetary health”, in The Lancet, vol. 386, issue 14, pp. 1973-2028. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60901-1 [Accessed 24 July 2022].

Sunder, W., Moellmann, J., Zeise, O. and Jurk, L. A. (2021), The Patient Room – Planning, Design, Layout, Birkhäuser. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1515/9783035617528 [Accessed 24 July 2022].

Thiadens, J. G. A. M., Kriek, R. J., Afink, G. H., Burger, A. C. M. and Oosterom, N. J. (2009), “Martini Teaching Hospital, Groningen, Netherlands”, in Rechel, B., Erskine, J., Dowdeswell, B., Wright, S. and McKee, M. (eds), Capital Investment for Health – Case Studies from Europe, Observatory Studies n. 18, World Health Organization, Denmark, pp. 75-87. [Online] Available at: apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/326419/9789289041782-eng.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y [Accessed 24 July 2022].

Zhang, W., Lv, J., Zhao, J., Ma, X., Li, X., Gu, H., Zhang, M. and Zhou, R. (2022), “Proactive risk assessment of intrahospital transport of critically ill patients from emergency department to intensive care unit in a teaching hospital and its implications”, in Journal of Clinical Nursing, issue 31, pp. 2539-2552. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1111/jocn.16072 [Accessed 24 July 2022].

Zborowsky, T. Bunker-Hellmich, L., Morelli, A. and O’Neill, M. (2010), “Centralized vs. decentralized nursing stations – Effects on nurses’ functional use of space and work environment”, in Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 3, issue 4, pp. 19-42. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1177/193758671000300404 [Accessed 24 July 2022].