POSSIBLE AND PREFERABLE SCENARIOS OF A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE
ADAPTATION, MITIGATION AND SMART URBAN METABOLISM TOWARDS THE ECOLOGICAL TRANSITION
adaptation, climate mitigation, smart urban metabolism, climate change, ecological transition
The paper discusses the relationship between adaptation and mitigation in the different dimensions (temporal, spatial, economic, political, psychological, social, and finally designing), to highlight the existing or potential links, in the perspective of a systemic and multi-scale design approach, capable of integrating its benefits. This strategy is based on widespread technological awareness, on smart metering, and on available IoT technologies, which can be integrated into buildings to govern the metabolism of matter and energy of the urban system. The essay relates disciplinary and specialized scientific approaches, making a synthesis focused on the theme of the relationship between global warming, ecological transition, enabling technologies, and perception of the risks associated with climate change in progress.
Architecture | Essays & Viewpoint
Riccardo Pollo, Matteo Trane
Riccardo Pollo, Architect and PhD, is an Associate Professor in Architectural Technology at the Department of Architecture and Design at Politecnico di Torino (Italy). His research activity concerns of sustainable architectural and urban design, architectural design management and quality. Formerly main partner of his own architectural firm. Mob. +39 348/97.92.428 | E-mail: email@example.com
Matteo Trane, Master Degree in Architecture for Sustainability Design, is a Research Assistant at the Department of Architecture and Design at Politecnico di Torino (Italy). He carries out research activity in the field of environmental design, with particular reference to urban microclimate and urban metabolism. Mob. +39 347/67.18.481 | E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Air Quality Expert Group (2007), Air Quality and Climate Change – A UK Perspective. [Online] Available at: uk-air.defra.gov.uk/library/assets/documents/reports/aqeg/fullreport.pdf [Accessed 10 November 2020].
Bauman, Z. (2017), Retrotopia, Laterza, Bari.
Beery, T. (2019), “Exploring the role of outdoor recreation to contribute to urban climate resilience”, in Sustainability, vol. 11, issue 22, article 6268, pp. 1-22. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.3390/su11226268 [Accessed 20 November 2020].
Biesbroek, G. R., Swart, R. J. and van der Knaap, W. G. M. (2008), “The mitigation-adaptation dichotomy and the role of spatial planning”, in Habitat International, vol. 33, issue 3, pp. 230-37. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2008.10.001 [Accessed 20 November 2020].
Conke, S. L. and Ferreira, T. L. (2015), “Urban metabolism – Measuring the city’s contribution to sustainable development”, in Environmental Pollution, vol. 202, pp. 146-152. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2015.03.027 [Accessed 20 November 2020].
Crutzen, P. J. (2002), “The ‘Anthropocene’”, in Journal de Physique IV, vol. 12, issue 10, pp.1-5.
Cui, X. (2018), “How can cities support sustainability – A bibliometric analysis of urban metabolism”, in Ecological Indicators, vol. 93, pp. 704-17. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2018.05.056 [Accessed 18 November 2020].
Demuzere, M., Orru, K., Heidrich, O., Olazabal, E., Geneletti, D., Orru, H., Bhave, A. G., Mittal, N., Feliu, E. and Faehnle, M. (2014), “Mitigating and adapting to climate change – Multi-functional and multi-scale assessment of green urban infrastructure”, in Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 146, issue 15, pp. 107-115. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.07.025 [Accessed 5 November 2020].
Dijst, M. (2013), “Space-Time Integration in a Dynamic Urbanizing World – Current Status and Future Prospects in Geography and GIScience”, in Annals of the Association of American Geographers, vol. 103, issue 5, pp. 1058-1061. [Online] Available at: researchgate.net/publication/263570108_Space-Time_Integration_in_a_Dynamic_Urbanizing_World_Current_Status_and_Future_Prospects_in_Geography_and_GIScience_Space-Time_Integration_in_Geography_and_GIScience [Accessed 7 October 2020].
Dijst, M., Worrel, E., Böcker, L., Brunner, P., Davoudi, S., Geertman, S., Harmsen, R., Helbich, M., Holtslag, A. A. M., Kwan, M. P., Lenz, B., Lyons, G., Mokhtarian, P. L., Newman, P., Perrels, A., Ribeiro, A. P., Carreon, J. R., Thomson, G., Urge-Vorsatz, D. and Zeyringer, M. (2018), “Exploring urban metabolism – Towards an interdisciplinary perspective”, in Resources Conservation and Recycling, vol. 132, pp. 190-203. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2017.09.014 [Accessed 4 November 2020].
EEA – European Environment Agency (2019), Trends and projections in Europe 2019 – Tracking progress towards Europe’s climate and energy targets, EEA Report, n. 15/2019. [Online] Available at: eea.europa.eu/publications/trends-and-projections-in-europe-1 [Accessed 30 September 2020].
Faroldi, E. (2018), “Prologue”, in Techne | Journal of Technology for Architecture and Environment, special issue 01, pp. 7-8. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.13128/Techne-23561 [Accessed 21 October 2020].
Geneletti, D., and Zardo, L. (2016), “Ecosystem-based adaptation in cities – An analysis of European urban climate adaptation plans”, in Land Use Policy, vol. 50, pp. 38-47. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2015.09.003 [Accessed 19 October 2020].
Gifford, R. (2011), “The Dragons of Inactions – Psychological Barriers that limit climate change mitigation and adaptation”, in American Psychologist, vol. 66, issue 4, pp. 290-302. [Online] Available at: researchgate.net/publication/254734365_The_Dragons_of_Inaction_Psychological_Barriers_That_Limit_Climate_Change_Mitigation_and_Adaptation [Accessed 18 October 2020].
Giovanardi, M., Giusto, R. and Pollo, R. (2020), “Infrastrutture digitali nei componenti di involucro per la gestione degli edifici”, in Perriccioli, M., Rigillo, M., Russo Ermolli, S. and Tucci, F. (eds), Design in the Digital Age – Technology, Nature, Culture, Maggioli Editore, Sant’Arcangelo di Romagna, pp. 238-242. [Online] Available at: sitda.net/8-avvisi-sitda/769-pubblicazione-volume-design-in-the-digital-age-technology-nature-culture.html [Accessed 14 December 2020].
Giovannini, E. (2018), L’Utopia sostenibile, Laterza, Bari.
Giovannini, E. (2016), L’Agenda globale per lo sviluppo sostenibile – Una sfida straordinaria per il futuro del pianeta e dell’umanità. [Online] Available at: fondazioneunipolis.org/Documents/Notizie/PAPER_GIOVANNINI.pdf [Accessed 11 September 2020].
Goklany, I. M. (2007), “Integrated strategies to reduce vulnerability and advance adaptation, mitigation, and sustainable development”, in Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, vol. 12, issue 5, pp. 755-786. [Online] Available at: researchgate.net/publication/225469151_Integrated_strategies_to_reduce_vulnerability_and_advance_adaptation_mitigation_and_sustainable_development [Accessed 5 November 2020].
Grafakos, S., Pacteau, C., Delgado, M., Landauer, M., Lucon, O. and Driscoll, P. (2018), “Integration of climate mitigation and adaptation – Opportunities and challenges”, in Rosenzweig, C., Solecki, W., Romero-Lankao, P., Mehrotra, S., Dhakal, S. and Ibrahim, S. A. (eds), Climate change and cities – Second assessment report of the urban climate change research network, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 1-28.
Grafakos, S., Trigg, K., Landauer, M., Chelleri, L. and Dhakal, S. (2019), “Analytical framework to evaluate the level of integration of climate adaptation and mitigation in cities”, in Climatic Change, vol. 154, pp. 87-106. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1007/s10584-019-02394-w [Accessed 6 November 2020].
Huang-Lachmann, J. T. and Guenther, E. (2020), “From Dichotomy to an Integrated Approach – Cities’ Benefits of Integrating Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation”, in Sustainability, vol. 12, issue 18, article 7591, pp. 1-17. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.3390/su12187591 [Accessed 5 September 2020].
IPCC (2007a), Climate Change 2007 – Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability – Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. [Online] Available at: ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/03/ar4_wg2_full_report.pdf [Accessed 13 September 2020].
IPCC (2007b), Climate Change 2007 – Mitigation of Climate Change – Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. [Online] Available at: ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/03/ar4_wg3_full_report-1.pdf [Accessed 25 November 2020].
Jacobson, M. Z., Delucchi, M., Bauer, Z., Goodman, S. C., Chapman, W., Cameron, M., Bozonnat, C., Chobadi, L., Clonts, H. A., Enevoldsen, P., Erwin J. H., Simone, N., Fobi, S. N., Owen, K. Goldstrom, O. K., Hennessy, Liu, J., Lo, J., Meyer, C. B., Morris, S. B., Moy, K. R., O’Neill, P. L., Petkov, I., Redfern, S., Schucker, R., Sontag, M. A., Wang, J., Weiner, E., and Yachanin, A. S. (2017), “100% Clean and Renewable Wind, Water, and Sunlight – All-Sector Energy Roadmaps for 139 Countries of the World”, in Joule, vol. 1, issue 1, pp. 108-121. [Online] Available at: dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joule.2017.07.005 [Accessed 5 October 2020].
Kennedy, C. A., Stewart, I., Facchini, A., Cersosimo, I., Mele, R., Chen, B., Uda, M., Kunsal, A., Chiu, A., Kim, K. G., Dubeux, C., Lebre La Rovere, E., Cunha, B., Princetl, S., Keirstead, J., Barles, S., Pusaka, S., Gunawan, J., Adegbile, M., Nazariha, M., Hoque, S., Marcotullio, P. J., Gonzalez Otran, F., Genena, T., Ibrahim, N., Farooqui, R., Cervantes, G. and Duran Sahin, A. (2015), “Energy and material flows of megacities”, in PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 112, issue 19, pp. 5985-5990. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1504315112 [Accessed 5 September 2020].
Klein, R. J. T., Eriksen, S. E. H., Naess, L. O., Hammill, A., Tanner, T. M., Robledo, C. and O’Brien, K. L. (2007), “Portfolio screening to support the mainstreaming of adaptation to climate change into development assistance”, in Climatic Change, vol. 84, pp. 23-44. [Online] Available at: researchgate.net/publication/225411235 [Accessed 13 October 2020].
Kristl, Z., Senior, C. and Temeljotov Salaj, A. (2020), “Key challenges of climate change adaptation in the building sector”, in Urbani Izziv, vol. 31, issue 1, pp. 101-111. [Online] Available at: jstor.org/stable/26928561 [Accessed 7 October 2020].
Lacroix, K. and Gifford, R. (2017), “Psychological barriers to energy conservation behavior: the role of worldviews and climate change risk perception”, in Environment and Behavior, vol. 50, issue 7, pp. 749-780. [Online] Available at: web.uvic.ca/~esplab/sites/default/files/Lacroix.pdf [Accessed 20 November 2020].
Langer, A. (1994), “La conversione ecologica potrà affermarsi soltanto se apparirà socialmente desiderabile”, in cencicasalab 01/08/1994. [Online] Available at: cencicasalab.it/node/18 [Accessed 14 October 2020].
Latour, B. (2018), Tracciare la rotta – Come orientarsi in politica, Raffaello Cortina Editore, Milano.
Lau, J. T. and Mah, D. Y. S. (2017), “Green wall for retention of Stormwater”, in Science & Technology, vol. 26, issue 1, pp. 283-298. [Online] Available at: ir.unimas.my/id/eprint/19550 [Accessed 6 October 2020].
Lee, T, Yang, H. and Blok, A. (2020), “Does mitigation shape adaptation? The urban climate mitigation adaptation nexus”, in Climate Policy, vol. 20, issue 3, pp. 341-353. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1080/14693062.2020.1730152 [Accessed 6 October 2020].
Lefebvre, H. (2014), Il diritto alla città, Ombre Corte, Verona.
Locatelli, B., Pavagenau, C., Pramova, E. and Di Gregorio, M. (2015), “Integrating climate change mitigation and adaptation in agriculture and forestry – Opportunities and trade-offs”, in Wires Climate Change, vol. 6, issue 6, pp. 585-598. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1002/wcc.357 [Accessed 9 November 2020].
Losasso, M. (2018), “Contenuti disciplinari e competenze innovative per la formazione e la ricerca nell’area tecnologica | Educational contents and innovative competencies for training and research in technology industry”, in Agathón | International Journal of Architecture, Art and Design, vol. 3, pp. 23-28. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.19229/2464-9309/332018 [Accessed 19 November 2020].
Losasso, M. (2015), “Rigenerazione urbana – Prospettive di innovazione | Urban regeneration – Innovative perspectives”, in Techne | Journal of Technology for Architecture and Environment, vol. 10, pp. 4-5. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.13128/Techne-17492 [Accessed 6 October 2020].
McEvoy, D., Lindley S. and Handley, J. (2006), “Adaptation and mitigation in urban areas: synergies and conflicts”, in Municipal Engineer, vol. 159, issue 4, pp. 184-191. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1680/muen.2006.159.4.185 [Accessed 6 October 2020].
Milanovic, B. (2019), Capitalism – Alone – The future of the system that rules the world, The Belknap Press of the Harvard University Press, Cambridge.
Negrello, M. (2017), “Architettura, cibo e agricoltura – Assaggi della città autosufficiente”, in ilgiornaledell’architettura.com, 16/05/2017. [Online] Available at: ilgiornaledellarchitettura.com/web/2017/05/16/architettura-cibo-e-agricoltura-assaggi-della-citta-autosufficiente/ [Accessed 19 October 2020].
Ouldboukhitine, S., Belarbi, R. and Sailor D. J. (2014), “Experimental and numerical investigation of urban street canyons to evaluate the impact of green roof inside and outside buildings”, in Applied Energy, vol. 114, pp. 273-282. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.09.073 [Accessed 16 November 2020].
Pollo, R., Biolchini, E., Squillacioti, G. and Bono, R. (2020), “Designing the Healthy City – An Interdisciplinary Approach | Progettare la Città che Produce Salute – Un Approccio Interdisciplinare”, in Sustainable Mediterranean Construction, vol. 12, pp. 150-155. [Online] Available at: sustainablemediterraneanconstruction.eu/SMC/The_Magazine_n.12_files/1223.pdf [Accessed 14 November 2020].
Safi, A. S., Smith, W. J. and Liu, Z. (2012), “Rural Nevada and climate change – Vulnerability, beliefs, and risk perception”, in Risk Analysis, vol. 32, pp. 1041-1059. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.2012.01836.x [Accessed 14 November 2020].
Seto, K., Shobhakar, D., Anthony, B. et alii (2014), “Human Settlements, Infrastructure and Spatial Planning”, in Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change – Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 923-1000. [Online] Available at: ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg3/human-settlements-infrastructure-and-spatial-planning/ [Accessed 12 September 2020].
Shahrokni, H., Lazarevic, D. and Brandt, N. (2015), “Smart Urban Metabolism – Towards a Real-Time Understanding of the Energy and Material Flows of a City and Its Citizens”, in Journal of Urban Technology, vol. 22, issue 1, pp. 65-86. [Online] Available at: researchgate.net/publication/275281721_Smart_Urban_Metabolism_Towards_a_Real-Time_Understanding_of_the_Energy_and_Material_Flows_of_a_City_and_Its_Citizens [Accessed 21 October 2020].
Trane, M. (2020), “Metodologie e strumenti per una valutazione dei flussi di materia e di energia alla scala micro-urbana”, in Perriccioli, M., Rigillo, M., Russo Ermolli, S. and Tucci, F. (eds), Design in the Digital Age – Technology, Nature, Culture, Maggioli Editore, Sant’Arcangelo di Romagna, pp. 77-79. [Online] Available at: sitda.net/8-avvisi-sitda/769-pubblicazione-volume-design-in-the-digital-age-technology-nature-culture.html [Accessed 14 December 2020].
Treccani (2007), Enciclopedia degli idrocarburi, Istituto della Enciclopdia Italia. [Online] Available at: treccani.it/export/sites/default/Portale/sito/altre_aree/Tecnologia_e_Scienze_applicate/enciclopedia/italiano_vol_3/idro_vol_3_ita.pdf [Accessed 14 November 2020].
Tucci, F. and Battisti, A. (2020), “Green Economy for Sustainable and Adaptive Architectures and Cities – Objectives, Guidelines, Measures, Actions”, in IOP Conference Series – Earth and Environmental Science, vol. 503, pp. 1-8. [Online] Available at: doi.10.1088/1755-1315/503/1/012022 [Accessed 6 November 2020].
Tunji-Olayeni, P. F., Omuh, I. O, Afolabi, A. O., Ojelabi, R. A. and Eshofonie, E. E. (2019), “Climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies for construction activities within planetary boundaries: Limitations of developing countries”, in Journal of Physics, Conference Series, vol. 1299, pp. 1-8. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1299/1/012006 [Accessed 12 October 2020].
United Nations – Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2019), World Urbanization Prospects – The 2018 Revision, ST/ESA/SER.A/420, United Nations, New York. [Online] Available at: population.un.org/wup/Publications/Files/WUP2018-Report.pdf [Accessed 10 September 2020].
United Nations – Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2010), World Urbanization Prospects – The 2009 Revision – Highlights, ESA/P/WP/215, United Nations, New York. [Online] Available at: ipcc.ch/apps/njlite/ar5wg2/njlite_download2.php?id=10148 [Accessed 21 December 2020].